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Thursday, 22 August 2013

Keyhole Bed for Medicinal Plants

We have now camped on Vasko's land in Rozovets, Bulgaria for over a month and are well finished with the survey and analysis of the land and finished the design starting to implement the first permanent design elements.  Vasko's wife Elka has a keen interest in medicinal plants and so one of the elements which we have already put in place is a keyhole bed for medicinal herbs.  The keyhole bed is a classical permaculture design, which is both space saving and pleasing to the eye.  The idea is that you plan a large round bed with a space free in the centre, so that the wide bed is accessible from either side without the need to step on the bed itself.

From the soil analysis we gathered that we he have two distinctly different soils: 1) the lower, southern part, which has a reasonable depth of sandy silt over a layer of chalk and possibly some clay a bit deeper down.  The ph is pretty much neutral and it is low in nitrogen and magnesium. 2) the higher northern part with almost no topsoil to speak of, just a rock hard chalky surface.

We decided to place the keyhole bed on the northern side, at the border between zones 1 and 2 in relation to where we intend to construct the strawbale house next spring, with the entrance pointing north for easiest acces from the house and also therefore having the path at the postion where there will potentially be the most shade from the plants.  So one of the first considerations was to create some topsoil, but first we wanted to outline the area and level it.

The dimensions of the bed are an outside diameter of 4 metres and an inside diameter of 1.2 metres.  That way the bed has a width of 1.4 metres all around and can easily be accessed from both sides with a reach of 70cm.  We had already dug a swale (more about that on another post), so we wanted it to fit below that.  With a stake in the centre and a piece of string of the appropriate length we measured the outer circle.  Then with an A-frame we measured a level diameter and placed stones around the lower perimeter with the stones from the mysterious stone-walled hole we found on the property.

Next we dug the soil from the higher end to the lower end to level the bed, a difficult and bone-breaking job, given the aforementioned hardness of the ground.  We then completed the stone circle, leaving a gap of 60cm at the northern end for the path.  Next we measured the inner circle, lined it with stones and connected the two circles to give a small path into the centre.

Now we were ready to make some soil, having also loosened the subsoil somewhat.  First we covered the area with some weed cuttings from the land to form a thick mulch.  The countryside above the land is mostly grazing land for cows, sheep and at least two herds of wild horses, so we went on numerous trips up the hill with a bucket and spade to collect their offerings and pile it on top of the mulch.  Meet some of our generous donours...

And this was the result of our efforts so far.  We also added an old hollow tree trunk we found, which adds a little height.

Finally we topped it all with some shop bought compost, as we haven't produced any of our own yet, and started planting and sowing some things, such as the hyssop in the foreground:

and the cowslip in the tree trunk:

For a full list of the herbs planned, see below.  We have also started enjoying the fruits of our labours, such as these delicious sweet and seedless grapes, more than we could eat, so we are attempting to dry them in the garage, protected by mosquito netting so the wasps don't get to them

And these small purple figs:

Now for the list of medicinal plants for those of you that interested.  I separated them into shade-tolerant and sun-loving plants and listed them more or less in descending order of height, the idea being to put the tallest shade tolerant plants on the northern side and the lower sun-loving plants on the south, if that makes sense.  I'm also giving the Latin names, their chief medical properties and other uses, as in permaculture every element should fulfill multiple functions.

Shade-tolerant plants:
  • Lovage levisticum officinale - skin and digestion aid - edible, makes a good addition to soups with a celery like flavour
  • Purple Loosestrife lythrum salicaria - wound herb, soothes sore throats - bee plant
  • Burdock artcium lappa - skin problems, anti-bacterial, rheumatism - edible root, dynamic accumulator
  • Comfrey symphtum officiale - bruises, sprains, broken bones, chest complaints - edible leaves, dynamic accumulator, bee plant
  • Sweet Cicely myrrhis odorata - diuretic, aids digestion, antiseptic - edible leaves
  • Clary Sage salvia sclarea - eyes, tonic, menopause - bee plant
  • St. John's Wort hypericum perforatum - skin, burns, anti-depressant - leaves and seeds as tea substitute
  • Peppermint mentha x piperita - digestion, headaches, colds - edible leaves, tea, ground cover
  • Yarrow achillea millefolium - blood stemming, menstrual problems, influenza - edible leaves, dynamic accumulator
  • Borage borago officinalis - blood circulation, rheumatism, anti-depressant - edible leaves and flowers, bee plant
  • Chamomile anthemis nobilis - calming, digestion, colds - ground cover, tea, dispels pests
  • Bergamot monarda didyma - antiseptic - edible leaves, tea, bee plant
  • Lady's Mantle alchemilla xantochlora - menstrual problems - ground cover
  • Red Clover trifolium pratense - PMT, menopause - ground cover, nitrogen fixing, edible leaves and flowers
Sun-loving plants:
  • Liquorice glycyrrhiza glabra - stomach ulcers, hepatitis, insect repellent - edible roots, dynamic accumulator
  • Centaury centaurium erythrea - stomach, liver, gallbladder - bee plant
  • Mullein verbascum densiflorum - ear infections, coughs, pulmonary problems - bee plant, dynamic accumulator
  • Tansy tanacetum vulgare - digestion, expels worms, rheumatism - edible leaves
  • Hyssop hyssoppus officinale - antiseptic, tonic - edible leaves, bee plant
  • Fennel foeniculum vulgare - digestion, anti-bacterial - edible leaves and seeds
  • Fenugreek trigonella foenum- graecum - digestion, lowering cholesterol - edible seeds, dynamic accumulator
  • Lavender lavendula angustifolia - calming, headaches - bee plant, used in perfumery
  • Sage salvia officinalis -colds, coughs, tooth whitener - edible leaves, bee plant
  • Feverfew tanacetum parthenium - migraines, fevers - attracts pollinators
  • Lemon balm melissa officinalis - depression, cold sores, insect repellent - edible leaves, tea, bee plant
  • Nasturtium tropaoelum majus - respiratory complaints - edible leaves and flowers, ground cover
  •  Marigold calendula officinalis - skin complaints - edible leaves and flowers, dispels certain harmful nematodes
  • Cowslip primula veris - anti-axiety, cramps, blood thinner - edible leaves and flowers, bee plant
  • Thyme thymus officinalis - anti-septic, coughs - edible leaves, bee plant, ground cover
  • Purslane portulaca oleracea - high in omega 3 acids, skin complaints - edible leaves, ground cover

1 comment:

wildcraft diva said...

Thanks for sharing :-) this great list.....Glad to see things are progressing ....Tanti Auguri